Archive material page 1

1923 map of Lurucina

MAP 5.
Map . Dept of Lands & surveys 1923. This map is from the personal archives of Ismail Veli 'Kirlapo'
This map . shows the plots of land owned by Mehmet Kavaz 'Ganu'. Some were in the family since the time of Mehmet Katri. These are marked in red. It corresponds to the vineyards marked on the Kitchener map. Pallourokambos to the north of Philidhiotissa indicates that it may have been a cotton growing field at one time. The numbers on each plot indicate the boundaries of land ownership which were registered at the tapu dairesi/land registry. Its clear from this map that the Philidhiotisa church also owned a large tract of land adjacent to the Church. Ancient remains dating to the 1200s AD clearly proves that a settlement existed since that time, When this settlement was abandoned is still not certain. There is some indication that Latins lived in this area and may have moved away from the main road in order to escape the advancing Ottoman army in 1570-71. The Venetians owned large tracts of land from near here to Ayo Sozemenos which was the summer residence of the Venetian Lieutenant Nicola Dandola who defended Nicosia against the Ottomans in between 22 July -9 September 1570.

The historic information is from Excerpta Cypria. Published in 1908 by Cambridge University. The Turks in Cyprus by Ahmet Gazioglu, 1990.

1923 map of Lurucina 2

MAP 6
Map . Dept of Lands & surveys 1923. This map is from the personal archives of Ismail Veli 'Kirlapo'.
This map is to the west of the above map. The plot of lands marked in red belonged to the Mehmet Kavaz 'Ganu' family. At the bottom left hand corner is the Moutsounin (face/yüz) hill. The shape of this hill clearly shows the reason for its name which looks like a face. The Lakxia tou Kapitanou is on the slopes facing north, while Kapirka is nearer to the village.

Evkaf  document of 1841

Pirga village census of 1841 in its original form. "A heritage of 400 years. records of Evkaf". Defter No: Emlak ve Arazi-63. Sahife No: 69-70. 4 Agustos 1841.
The census reports on this page also list the the villages of Livadya, Vuda, Ayanana, Pirga, Kallodya, Romolaksha, Balihori, Katomoni, Mitcera, Mandirya, Anarida and Nikokla.
Most villages at the time were very small and based around only a few families.

Evkaf page 58

Pirga village census of 4th August 1841.
Only the property tax payers are listed, therefore if as in the case of Pirga there were only 17 taxpayers then we can assume that the population was not much more then a hundred. The British census of 4th April 1881 which covered all persons amounted to 202. Yusuf Mustafa 'Kirlangic' ('Şiliono') came from this village before the 1841 census was taken, therefore he would not appear on the list, but its easy to see that three other persons carry the same surname, Ali Mustafa, Huseyin Mustafa, Topal Hasan Mustafa. it should be noted that The first son of Yusuf Mustafa was named Mustafa, ( Mustafa Yusuf 'Şiliono') while the second was named Hasan (Hasan Yusuf 'Arap'). Its possible that the second son was named as a mark of respect for a brother that may have had a disability as the nickname Topal (lame) would indicate. This off-course is speculative and the truth will probably never be known. Another more interesting point is that Mustafa son of Handan. Its obvious that Handan was the father of Mustafa and Mehmed and grandfather of Ali, Huseyin and Topal Hasan. and also the grandfather of Mahmud and Huseyin while Ayse was the wife of Mehmed.
This census proves that only 3 to 4 families lived in the village and had close family connections to each other. We may take the liberty of assuming that Yusuf Mustafa 'Kirlangic having left Pirga often visited his family. After all Pirga and Lurucina are only 8/9 miles apart.

Enosis plebiscite 1930

Enosis Plebiscite In Lurucina. Biblion du phsithisman 25 March 1930 page 110. by the Cyprus information office.

As the title of the page suggests this page deals with the voting that took place in Lurucina relating to the desire to unite Cyprus to Greece. The name of the village is written next to the date. There are seven signatories on the document which no doubt were the Greek community leaders of Lurucina. It should be noted that out of a total of 1,385 inhabitants 150 were Greek Cypriots (67 males and 83 females), while the remaining 1,235 were Turkish Cypriots (651 males and 584 women). the name Kyriakos appears on the left and right. This person may have represented 2 separate committee's of Greek organisations in the village. The bottom name also appears twice. In total there are 7 signatures. Each page of the "Biblion du phsithisman 25 March 1930", (Book of voting 1930) relates to one village. Lurucina was on page 110. The significance of 25 March 1930 was that it was the 110th anniversary of the launch of the Greek war of Independence against Ottoman rule. 25 March is celebrated as a national day. Hence the Enosis plebiscites carried out on this date. Unlike the 1921 plebiscite, the 1930 plebiscite did not lead to the same level of tension in the village, which led to the murder of the Greek priest in 1924 following the priests Christianising efforts to convert the Turkish villagers to the Orthodox faith.

Enosis Plebiscite 21.03.1921.

Enosis Plebiscite In Lurucina. Sadly its not a good copy. "Biblion du phsithisman 25 March 1921. by the Cyprus information office.
Signatories to the plebiscite were the village priest Papa Charalambous Michaelides
Head teacher; Andreas Andoniades
The village committee; Savas Sergiou, Charalambous Petri, Nicholas Kakoulli.
School Committee; Savas Sergiou, Petris Charalambous, Philippos Hadji-Eracles

This particular plebiscite taken all over Cyprus took place on the 100th anniversary of the start of the struggle of Greece's independence on 25 March 1921. This page only relates to Lurucina. Sadly the tension it created in the village was immense, and it may have been a contributory factor in the increased efforts by the village priest Charalambous Michaelides which finally led to his killing on 24 September 1924. Two brothers Yusuf and Mustafa Bairam were hanged for the crime. Most people believed them to have been the scapegoats for a crime that they did not commit. For more information on this, read the "Village History Page 2"

Census 1881

British census of Cyprus on 4th April 1881.
The list above gives us an interesting bit of information on Lurucina. The eyewitness account of William Turner on March 12 1815 of Lurucina was that there were only "thirty houses", the four and a half fold increase to 130 buildings, though not large was in fact quite dramatic in percentage terms. The average persons to each household had 4.6%. persons. The 1921 and 1931 census's were almost identical. If the same average is applied to 1815 then we can surmise that Lurucina had about 130-40 people. As most of the family trees on this site begin not too long before this period, then we can safely assume that nearly all the families of today originated from a very small number of family groups. Contrary to popular belief most of these family groups are relatively newcomers to Lurucina. Until more information is discovered for the earlier period then knowing who the early families originated from is difficult to know with certainty. One thing that catches instant attention is the Leper farm just above Lurucina. Contrary to what people believe it is not an ancient disease. Fifty persons were living at the farm in 1881. According to British officials the unofficial figures were much higher but the fear of being dis-inherited forced many to hide this illness until it grew and became very apparent. This sadly was a way of life in Cyprus at that time.

1931 British census (population)

The 1931 census shows a faster growth on average then most Turkish Cypriot villages. This census showed that the Greek population of the village at the time was 150 as opposed to 1.235 Turkish. On closer inspection the number of women being much less to men is in percentage terms quiet dramatic. Though it is speculative, one of the reasons could be the high number of deaths in women due to lack of medical facilities on pregnancy and birth.

Sadly the Leper farm listed just above Lurucina also shows a large increase from 50 in 1881 to 94 in. 1931. It could be that the authorities preferred to isolate the victims of this illness, or that more people were forthcoming with their illness by that time???.

1931 British census (property & land).

This section deals with the farmland and general produce of the villages. Its clear that Vineyards and olive trees were extensive. It also lists the ownership of animals generally used for farming. The total land area of Lurucina in 1931 amounted to 8.317 of which 7.137 was arable. Its very clear from these census results that the growth of Lurucina from 1881-1931 was dramatic in percentage terms. In fact from 30 dwellings 1815 to 328 in 1931 is almost 11 fold. At a time of high mortality and large migration by the Turkish speaking community on the Island as a whole, this was only possible because of the influx of newcomers to the village. The family tree sections seem to confirm this.

Cropped map of Mallura

MAP 7
This map deals with the ruins of Mallura which is east of the main Nicosia/Larnaca road. Kiraji Keuy/Athienou is at the top centre . The shaded area is farm land and vineyards. Petrophani was in existance during the Venetian period but was abandoned and then reoccupied during Ottoman rule. It does not appear on the maps between 1573-1730, but was listed on an Ottoman map of 1873, and offcourse on this map of Lord Kitchener prepared in 1882 and published in 1885

Malloura village map

MAP 8. Ethnoarchological Studies of population & Ancient Agriculture Richard W Yates
Map of the extent of the Roman and medieval settlements at Athienou- Malloura. Light shaded area is where Roman and medieval sherds were found. Dark shaded area is where only medieval sherds were present (drawing: A. Prinsand D. Massey).

The Venetian records of 1565 recorded 81 adult freedmen (Francomates) at Malloura. With women and children it had an estimated population of 196. During the Roman period the estimated population was between 188-258.

Athienou was the first farming village in the valley. It was established in the 1st century BC when Cyprus became a Roman Province.

Malloura was abandoned during the Arab-Byzantine period but re-settled during the Frankish Lusignan period. It was a thriving village and the people earned their living from cereals, vineyards, orchards and herding.

Athienou 1895 2

ATHIENOU PHOTOS OF1895
Top photo
threshing on a packed-dirt threshing floor (Aloni) at Athienou in 1895. the bottom of a threshing sledge (Dhoukani) can be seen on the left, while two other sledges are in use on the right. One thresher is standing on the (Dhoukani) the other is sitting on a chair and breast-feeding her child;

Bottom photo
Winnowing near the (Aloni) at Athienou in 1885 (Ohnefalsch-Richter 1994, Marfin Popular Bank Cultural Foundation).

Maps of Lord Kitchener 67

MAP 9
Maps of Lord Kitchener. 1885. (drawn in 1882, and published in 1885)
Unlike the maps of 1570-1730 this very accurate map of Lord Kitchener, dated 1885 shows that the old name of Atirne had by then changed to the more familiar name of Athienou but still retained its Turkish version of "Kiraci Keuy". The Turkish name seems to originate from the period just after the Ottoman rule when the Latin's were only allowed to trade as "muleteers". they simply transported goods for local traders as hired hands using their mules as beasts of burden. Hence the word "Kiraci". Petrophani is finally on the map, while a little to the south the ruins of the old village of Mallura are now more accurately shown. To the West outside this map. the ruins next to the old Phillidiotissa Church are in the location of where Damalia was shown on the medieval maps. If as Ahmet Gazioglu (The Turks in Cyprus) claims that the villages near to the main roads fled to escape the advancing Ottoman armies in 1570-71. Unlike other villages it seems that they were not settled by Turkish settlers after the end of the conflict.

Cropped map of Limbia

MAP 11
Maps of Lord Kitchener. 1885. (drawn in 1882, and published in 1885)
Unlike the older maps of 1573-1730, Lymbia has finally appeared on the map. The extensive vineyards shaded are now beginning to emerge to the south East and East of Lymbia. The vineyards to the East on the top right hand corner belonged to Lurucina which is just Outside this map (see map 1 & 2) The dirt track running through the cultivated areas lead directly to the main Nicosia, Larnaca road.

1911 Cyprus census 6

the 1911 census showing Lurucina as having a population 1090 showing a growth from 922 since 1901

1911 Cyprus census 37

The 1911 census showing the breakdown of Lurucina's population. Its very noticeable that the ratio of women to men in the Turkish population at 501 males to 445 females is very large in percentage terms, while for the Greek population its the females who number more females to men. The number of Muslims number 946 while the Cristians number only 144, which equates to routhly 13% of the total population of the village.

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